How can you engage students in argumentation beyond the CER essay?

I’m going to say it: C-E-R isn’t the only way to engage students in argument from evidence. In fact, it probably isn’t even the BEST way. WHAT?! Well, take a moment to consider

Engaging In Argument From Evidence when our students are writing their C-E-R responses, are they getting feedback from peers on their argument? Or are they simply writing their ideas and leaving it at that?

(Believe me, I was totally guilty of this!) 

Typically, we are NOT involving feedback in our C-E-R process (or at the very least, it isn’t timely feedback), and therefore, we aren’t truly engaging our students in argumentation. We aren’t providing a setting for them to collaboratively build knowledge and understanding.  We are simply asking them to share THEIR ideas and THEIR evidence.  And sure, we can theoretically evaluate our own ideas but realistically, ideas are honed and refined NOT by our OWN evaluations but rather by the discourse that occurs between individuals and amongst groups.  Therefore, we REALLY should be engaging our students in argumentation through discussion.  Individual written responses should only occur after students have had time to engage in discourse around the issue.

 

A Better Way To Practice Argumentation: Discussion

So how can classroom discussions reflect argumentation? Like written responses, you would first need to engage your group with an open-ended questions that requires students to make evidence-based claims.  These discussions can be held in partners or small groups (using appropriate protocols to support teacher documentation) or in a whole-class setting.  Oftentimes, beginning with partner or small group discussions can elicit better participation and engagement in a whole-class setting as students gain confidence and experience with the practices in general and their ideas and thoughts specifically. 

 

Argumentation and Analyzing Data

Because claims must be evidence-based, analyzing data is an important part of these discussions. Students may be given new data to analyze in light of the question (and other evidence they have gathered) or students may simply be reviewing the work they have already done — investigations and activities that have completed as a part of the unit.  Either way, this evidence must be present during the discussion so that it is there for students to draw from.  Using science notebooks is one way to keep these resources together and easily accessible. (And you can learn more about using science notebooks in the Literacy in Science workshop, too!)

 

Argumentation and Model Building

Argumentation can be tied to conceptual model-building.  After being presented with a phenomenon, students can illustrate what is occuring (both seen and unseen!) and then evaluate the models to identify strengths and weaknesses — like which best represents the phenomenon, explains what is occuring, illustrates the evidence, etc.  Students can use this argumentation experience to refine their models or to build a single model based on class consensus.  In both building and discussing models, it is important to remind students to use the evidence — and be prepared to justify their choices. 

 

Final Thoughts

Giving and receiving feedback and critique is an important part of Engaging in Argument from Evidence, and it is important to build this skill carefully and conscientiously — as it requires a degree of trust and a safe classroom environment.  To reduce the “risk” initially, work can be shared and feedback offered anonymously – using gallery walk formats and post-it notes, for example. Work (models, arguments) can be shared and discussed without names.  That said, over time, it is important for students to become comfortable claiming and sharing their own ideas and having those ideas challenged. It’s simply a part of argumentation.

 

Are you implementing the NGSS? Are you in desperate need of support? 

I have your solution. The Science Teacher Tribe Course + Community.  Through our professional development program, let us walk you through creating those cohesive units that tie your standards together, assessments that evaluate students on all three dimensions, and carefully crafted instruction that fosters student discovery of the content. End the course with a completely self-designed NGSS-aligned unit while earning a certificate of completion from iExploreScience!

If you’re not ready to enroll in our full professional development program, check out the free mini-course – Intro To The NGSS – to get a handle on the basics.  Discover what the NGSS REALLY looks like in the classroom – from changes to your content and instruction all the way down to your assessments. 

Science Teacher Tribe: Convenient and Comprehensive NGSS Professional Development

If you are anything like me, transitioning to the NGSS can be totally overwhelming.  Teaching is hard as it is – you’re busy keeping up with the “normal” lessons day to day and week to week, plus grading, meetings, IEPs, behavior management, so on and so forth. I get it. Who has the time or energy to figure out all that goes into these new standards and their impact on your curriculum, let alone what it means for your teaching!

Well, I’m happy to say there IS an easier way. You don’t HAVE to muddle through everything, and you definitely don’t have to do it alone!

Imagine feeling confident that the curriculum you designed is actually aligned to the standards, that your units incorporate the three dimensions and engage your students in Science and Engineering Practices that matter. Imagine classes full of students who take ownership of their learning, who thrive on “figuring it out” and “puzzling through it” and come to learn the content through discovery.  Imagine days where you DON’T have to stand in front of the class, battling for their attention, delivering boring lectures and notes, printing worksheet after worksheet, and wasting tons of time on review and reteaching — only to have your students fail to perform anyway. Imagine learning that sticks, and engaging activities (that you may already be doing!) but that lead to true understanding.  It’s not magic, and it doesn’t necessarily come easy, but it IS possible.  

Learn more at the Science Teacher Tribe Course and Community.